Alison Airies, thanks for sharing

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I have pinned this post to the top of my blog. It is to remind people of what many of our opponents want. Alison Aires wants a tyrannical government. They want summary execution for private possession of firearms.

This is why we have a Bill of Rights. This is why I created Boomershoot.

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Quote of the day—Ddraig RSP @Draigg

A man who’s twig & berries are so small you couldn’t find them with an electron microscope, compensating with a bunch of deadly phalli/phalluses. And because of that his wife invited the mailman “in for tea” about six years ago.

Ddraig RSP @Draigg
Tweeted on May 3, 2022
[It’s not only another Markley’s Law Monday, it is another science denier!

Insults. They lack the philosophical, moral, and legal high ground so they go with the best of what they have left.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Egon von Greyerz

In 1971, when Nixon closed the gold window, global debt was $1.5T.

After 50 years of irresponsible monetary policies debt has grown 200X. When we reach a total debt of $3 quadrillion in the next 5 to 10 years, with the assistance of the derivative collapse, the increase will be 2,000X since 1971.

Egon von Greyerz
July 13, 2022
BEWARE OF MARKETS FULL OF FOOL’S GOLD
[We live in interesting times.

Prepare appropriately.—Joe]

The physics of heat transfer

When I was going to college thermodynamics was dreaded by many engineering students. Apparently it involved concepts difficult for many to grasp. For some reason it made perfect sense to me. Compared to most of my other engineering classes it was easy. I got a very high A in the class. That was decades ago and I have forgotten a lot of it but I do have a good recollection of heat transfer.

That bright engineering students find it challenging means it should come as no surprise that people with little or no training in the subject would have misconception about how certain thermodynamic related physical phenomena occur. There have been many times on this blog I have made statements, or linked to articles, which described perfectly obvious observations. Some commenters declared them obliviously false. I didn’t want to take the time to explain why they were in error. It was just too much work for that particular situation.

It is now time to attempt explain certain things to people in terms and examples that will help them understand the physics of heat transfer. There are other sources on the web as well. But I will include example directly applicable to material on this blog.

The three* classic methods of heat transfer are:

  1. Thermal conduction (also called diffusion).
  2. Thermal convection.
  3. Thermal radiation.

The first two are relatively well understood at an intuitive level by nearly all functional people. It is the thermal radiation that I most want to address because of the clear lack of understanding I see in the comments here. I will explain the items 1 and 2 first to make the distinction from thermal radiation more clear. Please either stick with me or skip ahead if excessive boredom occurs.

Thermal conduction occurs when two objects of different temperature touch. Your finger touching an ice cube initiates the transfer of heat from your finger to the ice. The ice warms and when it reaches the melting point it changes phase from solid to liquid water.

If your finger is in a glass of liquid water and an ice cube thermal convection occurs**. Via conduction your finger warms the water touching your finger and because the warm water is slightly less dense than cold water*** the warm water rises. If the warm water is rising then the cold water must be sinking. This creates a loop of water flow in the glass. It is slow enough that you cannot easily see it or feel it. If you were to put a drop of food coloring in the water you probably could. The coldest water is next to the ice cube and the warmest is next to your finger. The water leaving the ice cube is replaced by water that recently left your warm finger. The warm water touching the ice cube conducts heat to the ice cube. This warms and melts the ice and cools the water causing it to sink. Heat is thus transferred from your finger to the ice.

Thermal convection occurs in gases as well as liquids. If you open a hot oven door with your face over the opening you will feel an almost blast of hot air. No similar blast occurs at the crack at the bottom of the oven because cool air is rushing in. The hot air rises near a wood stove and cool air near the floor replaces it and forms a slow moving loop of air. Soaring birds “ride the thermals” when different portions of the earth absorb more energy from the sun that others (for example dirt versus plants). This creates an updraft of air over the hotter earth which allows the birds to stay aloft with greatly reduced effort.

Thermal radiation occurs at all temperatures above absolute zero (-273.15 C or –459.67 F). But in our normal earthly circumstances most people are unaware of it because conduction and convection tend to dominate everyday life thermal transfers.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of particles in matter.

  • Thermal radiation occurs across empty space as in from the sun to the earth.
  • Thermal radiation occurs through gases as in from the sun to the surface of the earth.
  • Thermal radiation occurs though solids as in the sun through glass.

The sun is not some magical generator. Microwave ovens emit a very specific frequency of identical electromagnetic waves which also transfer heat. The difference is only in the means by which the EM waves are creates, not in the nature of the waves.

The leaves of plants will sometimes get colder than the nearby air because they radiate their heat into outer space on a cold clear night when the air is still. Hence the air may be 35 F but the plant leaf can lose heat and drop to below 32F and get frost damage.

Orchard owner sometimes protect their crops by “heaters” which produce smoke to block the thermal radiation. The heaters do not produce enough heat to significantly heat the air. Owners also sometimes use large fans which move warmer air over the leaves. Via conduction the warmer air restores the heat lost by radiation.

The temperature of the sun is extremely high and the thermal radiation occurs at high levels across a broad spectrum which includes the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum is what we call light. At the low frequency end of light we call this thermal radiation red and even lower infrared. At the high frequency of light we call this thermal radiation blue and even higher is ultraviolet.

Glass is not a magical solid conductor of thermal radiation. When exposed to thermal radiation all substances will do the following three things in various degrees with the incoming thermal radiation

  1. Transmit it through to the other side.
  2. Absorb it.
  3. Reflect it.

The amount of transmission, absorption, and reflection depend on the substance and frequency of the thermal radiation. These differing amounts are each described by a number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusively. These numbers are called coefficients. The sum of all these numbers will always be equal to 1.0 (conservation of energy). Hence clear glass, for visible light, may have a transmission coefficient of 0.90. That is, 90% of the thermal radiation in the visible spectrum passes through the glass. The reflection coefficient may be 0.08 and the absorption coefficient 0.02 for a total of 1.0. Colored glass absorbs and/or reflects some energy at certain frequencies and transmits most of the energy at other frequencies.

Clean water has a high transmission coefficient for visible light but is highly absorbing of a certain frequency in the microwave region of the spectrum. This is why microwave ovens can heat a cup of water. The water absorbs nearly all the microwave frequency thermal radiation which the water intercepts.

Brick, wood, and other common house construction materials transmit thermal radiation at frequencies we know as radio waves. You can easily listen to your radio and make cell phone calls inside your brick building. At visible light frequencies and normal wall thickness there is no human perceptible transmission.

Thermal radiation is also why a vacuum is not a perfect insulator. Even in the hard vacuum of deep space, far from stars or any other object a warm object will radiate its heat into the surrounding empty space as lower and lower frequencies of electromagnetic radiation until it approaches a temperature of absolute zero.

This is also why the earth cools at night. It radiates heat into outer space. If it didn’t get rid of heat at the same average rate at it absorbed it from the sun it would either get warmer or colder until the thermal radiation at night increased or decreased to match the visible light (as well as thermal) radiation absorbed from the sun.

Absorption and retransmission is where things get most obscure in our ordinary life and is where the commenters have been going astray.

Taking the example of an ordinary brick in the sunlight. It transmits none of the light, reflects some of the light in the red region of the spectrum and absorbs the rest. The absorbed the light causes the brick to warm. Some of that thermal energy is transferred to it’s surroundings via conduction and convection. But some of it is emitted as thermal radiation. This thermal radiation will be at various frequencies depending upon the exact chemical composition of the brick but most will be in the infrared region of the spectrum.

This change of frequency is how certain gases get classified as “greenhouse gases”. This is how paint can actually cool the substance it is painted on below the ambient air temperature.

I’ll explain the paint first since it is simpler and has less emotional content.

The back side of the paint receives thermal energy via conduction. Suppose this paint is on a building at 75 F. It emits thermal radiation out into its exterior environment with the clear empty (sun and moon transmit their own thermal radiation) sky being a very cold (many degrees below zero) heat sink. Normal paints absorb significant light energy as well as conduction gains from the air. But what if the paint had very low conduction ability on the outside but high conduction ability on the inside, and the paint also reflecting almost all light? The outgoing thermal radiation would dominate the incoming heat transfer from the air and sunlight. Hence, the paint would literally cool the building it was painted on without the use of any external power source.

Now lets consider the case of water vapor in the atmosphere. This is transparent to visible light. Clouds are condensation and/or ice. This water vapor transmits visible light to the earth which absorbs it and retransmits infrared thermal radiation just like our brick. The water vapor in the atmosphere, just like our colored glass, blocks the thermal radiation via reflection and absorption. If the incoming high frequency energy zips through the water vapor in the atmosphere and the retransmitted low frequency outgoing energy is reflected back to earth and/or absorbed then the earth will get warmer.

That is the extremely simple version of greenhouse gases. Things get really complicated when you throw in things like clouds which reflect significant portions of visible light as well as whether they are clouds of ice crystals or water droplets and their presence during the day versus night, the latitude, the type of surface (earth, water, forest, ice, etc.) they are shading, and probably many other things. Does water vapor and/or CO2 really cause “global warming”? I don’t know. I am skeptical of manmade changes of CO2 in earth’s atmosphere causing heating and I think water vapor is complex enough that modeling it accurately is probably currently impossible.

Venus, almost for certain, is far hotter because of its mix of atmospheric gases than it would be if the composition were something like 80% nitrogen (earth) instead of about 3.5% nitrogen.and 96.5% CO2. So, I believe greenhouse gases can be a real thing.

Summary: Thermal radiation is not as well known by the general public as thermal conduction and convection. But it is real and easily observed if it is pointed out to you. Thermal radiation becomes the dominate heat transfer mechanism when long distances are involved. Thermal radiation exists at different frequencies. Substances have different absorption, reflective, and transmission characteristics at the different frequencies. Because of these different characteristics at different frequencies it is possible to create one-way “heat valves”. Cooling paint and “greenhouse gases” are possible and exist because of these thermal dynamic “valves” utilizing thermal radiation.


* I won’t directly cover transfer of energy by phase changes or transfer of mass of differing chemical species.

** I’m not going to address the case of a zero gravity environment.

*** Yes, I know, at temperatures between 0 and 4 C this is not true. Let’s not complicate things. But it is interesting to note this anomaly is why ice generally forms on the top of a body of water rather than on the bottom then floating to the surface.

Mother Nature deserves the credit

This is interesting:

On January 15th, 2022, Tonga’s Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano erupted, spewing tons of gas and ash into the atmosphere. According to a Wednesday report by National Public Radio, the blast contained enough water vapor – notorious for its heat-trapping abilities – to temporarily raise Earth’s temperature.

“The massive amount of water vapor is roughly 10% of the normal amount of vapor found in the stratosphere, equaling more than 58,000 Olympic-size swimming pools,” NPR wrote.

The chemicals “came from a volcano that’s more than 12 miles wide, with a caldera sitting roughly 500 feet below sea level. One day earlier, Tongan officials reported the volcano was in a continuous eruption, sending a 3-mile-wide plume of steam and ash into the sky. Then the big blast came, sending ash, gases and vapor as high as 35 miles — a record in the satellite era — into the atmosphere,” per NPR.

In a July paper published in Geophysical Research Letters, scientists discovered that Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai “may be the first volcanic eruption observed to impact climate not through surface cooling caused by volcanic sulfate aerosols, but rather through surface warming.”

Water vapor lingers in the air, which contributes to its ability to retain heat.

“It normally takes around 2-3 years for sulfate aerosols from volcanoes to fall out of the stratosphere. But the water from the Jan. 15 eruption could take 5-10 years to fully dissipate,” NPR explained.

I initially wondered if the extra water could be responsible for the extraordinary wet spring we had this year. But I read elsewhere that the volcano put the water in the stratosphere and it will take a couple years for the water to move down into the troposphere and become rain.

Its sounds as if, for the next few years, we can expect warmer than normal weather. Don’t let the climate alarmist blame it on fossil fuels. Insist Mother Nature gets the appropriate credit.

A good start

In North Carolina:

The school system in Madison County, N.C., plans to put AR-15 rifles in emergency safes in each of its six schools as a part of a plan for enhanced security in the wake of the Uvalde, Texas, school shooting earlier this year.

“We were able to put an AR-15 rifle and safes in all of our schools in the county,” Sheriff Buddy Harwood told the Asheville Citizen-Times. “We’ve also got breaching tools to go into those safes. We’ve got extra magazines with ammo in those safes.”

The breaching tools are intended to allow police to break down barricaded doors without having to wait for the fire department.

Harwood said that he wants to “make sure my deputies are prepared” in the event of a school shooting, especially after the Uvalde police failed to take down the shooter at Robb Elementary School for over an hour.

It would be better if at least some of the school staff had access to the safe rather than just the police. But, maybe they do and they just aren’t talking about it.

And even better would be if all the staff were allowed conceal carry. That isn’t far fetched as some states already allow something approximating that. And with the Buren decision, unless the schools have continuous armed guards, a case could be made that schools don’t qualify as “sensitive places” and carry must be permitted.

We live in interesting times.

Quote of the day—Jonathan Lowy

The Supreme Court has given an invitation for the gun lobby to file lawsuits against virtually every gun law in America.

Jonathan Lowy
Chief counsel and vice president at Brady
August 4, 2022
After Supreme Court Ruling, It’s Open Season on US Gun Laws
[He says that as if it were a bad thing.

What does he think “shall not be infringed” is supposed to mean?

I hope he enjoys his trial.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Leonard Williamson

In order to obtain the permit, an applicant would have to show up with a firearm to demonstrate the ability to load, fire, unload, and store the firearm. But you can’t get a firearm without the permit. And under Oregon’s highly restrictive gun storage laws, no one can legally loan a firearm to another. That creates an impassable barrier.

Leonard Williamson
July 31, 2022
Oregonians to Vote on Gun Control Measure Opponent Calls ‘Strictest’ in the Nation
[You might be inclined to believe it was slopping drafting of the ballot measure. Others might be inclined to believe they really are just that stupid.

Many of them are suffering from Peterson Syndrome and cannot understand logical thoughts, so that may have contributed. But, overall, I’m inclined to believe they are so blinded by hate and prejudice they view obstacles such as this as features and not bugs.

I hope they enjoy their trials.—Joe]

Quote of the day—David Cicilline

Spare me the BS about constitutional rights.

David Cicilline
U.S. Representative (D-RI)
Democrats Don’t Care Whether Banning ‘Assault Weapons’ Is Constitutional
[The last 30 years of firearm legislation by the Democrats (and some Republicans) made it impossible to envision a mindset any different from this. But us knowing it to be true and one of them openly, unambiguously, saying it in public is something new.

I applaud Rep Cicilline open confession. I hope he enjoys his trial.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Sebastian

Unlike with marriage or protesting (two other contexts where licensing of a right is permitted), the ruling class are likely to remain completely hostile to the idea of the peasantry being armed. For non-discretionary licensing to work, there needs to be broad consensus that it should be non-discretionary, and you’ll never have that with guns.

Sebastian
July 21, 2022
The New Resistance to the 2A
[While I agree with the first sentence I’m not convinced the second sentence is true. It would seem to me that liberal application of 18 USC 242 with harsh sentencing (the death penalty could be justified in some situations) would get us sufficiently close.—Joe]

Quote of the day—David Hardy

It’s not just that the anti-gunners are losing. It’s that their cause is becoming irrelevant, obsolete.

David Hardy
July 28, 2022
Right to arms — in Taiwan
[I think a case can be made for his assertion even though I think this might be somewhat overstating the situation. They still have some fight in them. See, for example, the law New York state passed in response to the Bruen decision, the bill Biden just signed into law, and the bill just passed by the House.

Most of those laws will not pass constitutional muster but it will take a lot of time and money to get them thrown out.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Hey Now! @HeyNowTrucker

You are illegally storing your guns. Did you take your gun training? Or those guns are illegal too? Instead buying a bunch of guns to feel manly, would you ever consider just doing some push-ups? Or just accept that you have a small peen, instead of over compensating?

Hey Now! @HeyNowTrucker
Tweeted on May 12, 2022
[It’s not only another Markley’s Law Monday, it is another science denier!

Via a tweet from In Chains @InChainsInJail.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Melissa Chan

Concerns over the firearm industry’s marketing practices and accountability grew Thursday, prompting more proposed legislation, a day after chief executives of two leading gun manufacturers told Congress they bore no blame in the recent mass shootings.

House lawmakers introduced a measure that would direct the Federal Trade Commission to investigate the gun industry’s advertising and marketing practices. It is the latest attempt by federal legislators to hold gun companies responsible after the massacres in Buffalo, New York and Uvalde, Texas.

Melissa Chan
July 28, 2022
Concerns grow over gun industry’s accountability after CEOs tell Congress they bear no blame in mass shootings
[In related news Democrat lawmakers dismissed as “ridiculous” an amendment to include spoons and forks in the FTC investigation. This is despite spoons and forks being used in almost all obesity related deaths totalling 100s of times more deaths than “assault weapons”. This comes amid growing claims that people would be much safter if the general population did not have access to high capacity feeding devices instead of using chopsticks.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Malcolm Nance

We’ve seen the Supreme Court is no longer an instrument of justice.

Malcolm Nance
July 23, 2022
GOP Will ‘Defund Every Component of the U.S. Government’ If It Becomes Party in Power, Ex-MSNBC Analyst Warns
[He says this as if this were a bad thing.

The job of SCOTUS is the interpretation of the constitution, laws legally enacted, and make sure those laws are appropriately applied. Those laws may or may not have anything to do with his, mine, or anyone else’s vision of “justice”.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Carl Bussjaeger

The DC District Court is going to hate this. It has generally been very supportive of DC’s rights-infringements, but NYSRPA v. Bruen is very, very clear.

Well done, Mr. Heller.

Carl Bussjaeger
July 10, 2022
Dick Heller is Suing DC again
[It is a very slow process. But it is working. Give it a decade or so and perhaps then we can start prosecuting the criminals and speed things up.—Joe]

Arms and guns

Via email from JHardin:

Just getting SO tired of “where does the 2nd Amendment say anything about *guns*?”

image

After we get machine guns and other NFA weapons secured without taxes we need artillery.

Quote of the day—Kaelan Deese

Lawyers seeking to invalidate a Wisconsin-based YouTube celebrity’s gun crime indictment are citing a recent Supreme Court decision over gun rights, calling the state’s 78-year-old law regulating machine guns unconstitutional.

Attorneys for Matthew Hoover, a Wisconsin gun dealer whose YouTube channel has nearly 151,000 subscribers, have asked a judge in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida to dismiss his January indictment with Clay County, Florida, resident Kristopher Ervin, who was charged last year with selling illegal machine gun conversion equipment online.

Hoover’s lawyers asked U.S. District Judge Marcia Morales Howard earlier this month to rule that the National Firearms Act, a 1934 law restricting machine gun ownership by creating a tax license requirement on them, is at odds with the Constitution’s Second Amendment right to bear firearms.

Kaelan Deese
July 19, 2022
Celebrity YouTuber cites Supreme Court gun ruling in bid to dismiss machine gun charges
[This is a little bit earlier than I would have liked to see a challenge to machine gun law. I would prefer we had “assault weapons” and “high capacity” magazines securely protected then work our way on to suppressors and finally machine guns.—Joe]

Quote of the day—David Kopel

Today U.S. District Judge Raymond P. Moore issued a temporary restraining order against the ban on so-called “assault weapons” recently enacted by the town of Superior, Colorado, in Boulder County. The case is Rocky Mountain Gun Owners v. Superior.

Like several other towns in Boulder County, Superior recently outlawed semiautomatic centerfire rifles that have at least one supposedly bad characteristic, such as an adjustable stock; various semiautomatic shotguns; various semiautomatic handguns; and magazines with a capacity of over 10 rounds.

It was obvious that such arms are “commonly used by law-abiding citizens for lawful purposes,” which is the Supreme Court’s rule from District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) for which arms are protected by the Second Amendment.

David Kopel
July 22, 2022
Colorado U.S. District Court issues TRO against magazine and gun ban
[And so it begins!—Joe]

Quote of the day—Egon von Greyerz

Debt is likely to grow exponentially in the next 5-10 years, as the world experiences hyperinflation. But we must also remember that as commodities such as food and energy plus many raw materials like precious metals go up exponentially, all the bubble assets (stocks, bonds and property) will implode in real terms.

Egon von Greyerz
July 13, 2022
BEWARE OF MARKETS FULL OF FOOL’S GOLD
[We live in interesting times.

Prepare appropriately.—Joe]