Alison Airies, thanks for sharing

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I have pinned this post to the top of my blog. It is to remind people of what many of our opponents want. Alison Aires wants a tyrannical government. They want summary execution for private possession of firearms.

This is why we have a Bill of Rights. This is why I created Boomershoot.

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Quote of the day—Danny Westneat

Thursday, a typical day based on police reports and aid calls, there was one “drug-related casualty” down the block and a dozen other calls for either narcotics or “behavioral/emotional crisis.”

That same day, while I was there, a man collapsed face-first on the sidewalk around the corner from the now-shuttered Amazon Go. When I asked his mates if they needed me to call 911, they daubed the back of his neck with a wet T-shirt and said, “No, no, he’ll pop out of it.”

He did. Later, though, I saw him shouting and bashing a wooden pole against a Pike Street building front.

Police have been trying to crack down. One day a week ago they busted eight people here for selling fentanyl and meth. The futility was acknowledged right in the news release: The cops said they ran down a 16-year-old who was selling fentanyl and had a gun, only to realize they’d just arrested the same teenager, pushing fentanyl with a different gun, at the same Third and Pike corner a few weeks earlier.

Danny Westneat
August 13, 2022
There are sprouts of hope in downtown Seattle, but they are wilting
[Via a comment from Chet who said, in part, “I am reminded of the story of Sodom and Gomorrah and other stories of wickedness including Proverbs 16:27-29 that I heard so often when I was growing up.”

What you see here is the result of politicians who are either out of touch with reality and/or deliberately trying to destroy our nation.

This is what Barb calls Mugme Street.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Jack Phillips

Two months ago, Jordan said that six FBI whistleblowers approached the committee. Two came forward about a memo related to alleged violence and intimidation at school board meetings and four in connection to the Jan. 6, 2021, Capitol breach. In the Senate, meanwhile, Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) said in July that whistleblowers had come to his office to provide information, including disclosures relating to investigations into Hunter Biden’s overseas business dealings.

“It’s becoming a well-worn trail of agents who say this has got to stop, and thank goodness for them and that American people recognize it, and I believe they’re going to make a big change on Nov. 8,” Jordan said, referring to the midterm elections.

In June, Jordan sent a letter to FBI Director Christopher Wray warning that several former FBI officials were coming forward, while alleging the agency is “purging” employees who have conservative views.

“In one such example, the FBI targeted and suspended the security clearance of a retired war servicemember who had disclosed personal views that the FBI was not being entirely forthcoming about the events of January 6,” Jordan wrote in a statement. “The FBI questioned the whistleblower’s allegiance to the United States.

Jack Phillips
August 15, 2022
14 FBI Whistleblowers Have Come Forward: Rep. Jordan
[It seems to me it is long past time the Federal government had its “horns” trimmed. This is a job for the states. I hope they are up for the task. If they don’t a real uprising, the debt, and/or hyperinflation may bring about the collapse of everything, perhaps including a significant portion of the rest of the world.

We live in interesting times. Prepare appropriately.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Valerie @MsPinkBehavior

How about we stop pretending that men’s obsession with guns has nothing to do with their feelings of inadequacy, especially as it relates to genitalia? Everything? No.

A small piece? For sure.

pun intended #GunControlNow

Valerie @MsPinkBehavior
Tweeted on May 29, 2022
[It’s not only another Markley’s Law Monday, it is another science denier!

When you don’t have a principled, legal, or practical argument you go with the best you have… childish insults.

Via a tweet from In Chains @InChainsInJail.—Joe]

Quote of the day—N.S. Lyons

You are not in high school debate club anymore. You are a peasant in feudal Japan, and every day the Samurai get to denigrate, abuse, and rough up your kind as much as they want. But if you ever talk back to a samurai, let alone try to do a little roughing up of your own, you will be beheaded on the spot. And far from being punished for this, the samurai who does it will be praised for doing his duty, since uppity peasants are dangerous and immoral and need to be dealt with at once, before they threaten the established social hierarchy. That samurai is just protecting democracy the Shogunate. Pointing out the hierarchy of the social order as a peasant will be met only with a nod of approval: “yes, that is how it is, it’s good that now you finally understand.”

If you, Class B serf, do not enjoy this arrangement, your lamentations about hypocrisy will not change it, no matter how loud and shrill. Only taking back control of the levers of power and then using that power to strike the fear of accountability into the hearts of your ruling class will ever be able to do that.

N.S. Lyons
August 10, 2022
It’s not Hypocrisy, You’re Just Powerless — A quick Public Service Announcement for Class B
[“Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.” And, one must conclude, political power diminishes as your access to guns is infringed.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Rising serpent @rising_serpent

You must’ve just woken up from a 5-year propofol coma and completely missed the Russia hoax, Steele dossier, FISA warrant, Kevin Clinesmith, Hillary paying fusion GPS, and your boss asking Susan Rice to write “by the book” in an email to herself on the last day of his presidency.

Rising serpent @rising_serpent
Tweeted on August 8, 2022
[This hints at the latest misunderstanding between the peons of the evil party and the stupid party. Both sides are running on high emotions and yelling at the other side.

One side is rejoicing that President Trump had his personal residence searched by the FBI and mocks the peons on the other side when they say things such as, “If it can happen to Trump it can happen to you!” And they get a response of, “Well, of course if you commit a crime and law enforcement presents sufficient evidence to a judge, they will sign off on a search warrant. It’s called ‘due process’, DUH!”

Apparently the Trump supporters have all the false accusations and manufactured evidence instances hard wired into their psyches and no longer think any reference need to be made. The Trump haters apparently never got the memos that all those years of claims of “Trump is going to prison any day now!” were just wet-dreams and not reality.

I would like to believe, but I’m a hopeless optimistic, some of the high emotions and agitation would dissipate if people would patiently explain the reality as they see it while the other side patiently listened. Then they might attempt to resolve their differences with reason and examination of the evidence rather than by yelling louder.—Joe]

News you can use

From Neuroscience News:

Research led by Drs. Yuhai Zhao and Walter J Lukiw at the LSU Health New Orleans Neuroscience Center and the Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Neurology and Ophthalmology, reports for the first time a pathway that begins in the gut and ends with a potent pro-inflammatory toxin in brain cells contributing to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). They also report a simple way to prevent it.

The highly potent neurotoxin BF-LPS is a natural by-product of GI-tract-based microbial metabolism. Bacteroides fragilis abundance in the microbiome, which is the source of the neurotoxin BF-LPS, can be regulated by dietary fiber intake.

“Put another way, dietary-based approaches to balance the microorganisms in the microbiome may be an attractive means to modify the abundance, speciation, and complexity of enterotoxigenic forms of AD-relevant microbes and their potential for the pathological discharge of highly neurotoxic microbial-derived secretions that include BF-LPS and other forms of LPS,” Lukiw explains.

The researchers conclude that an improved understanding of the interaction between the GI tract-Central Nervous System axis and the GI-tract microbiome and Alzheimer’s disease has considerable potential to lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the clinical management of Alzheimer’s disease and other lethal, progressive, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

It has been estimated that Americans eat 10–15 grams of fiber a day on average. The USDA recommends that women up to age 50 consume 25 grams a day and men 38 grams. Over age 50, women and men should consume 21 and 30 grams daily, respectively.

Eat your lentils, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), and shredded wheat*. One half cup of lentils contains 7.8 grams of fiber. The same amount of Chickpeas contain 6.3 grams of fiber. One cup of shredded wheat contains 6.2 grams of fiber. Other sources of dietary fiber may be substituted.


* We grow lentils, chickpeas, and wheat on the farm.

No more debate

Via TiredNOld @TiredNOld3:

BootUpSuitUpGetInTheStack

Fortunately for everyone, SCOTUS ruled in favor of the Constitution in Bruen. This significantly reduced the odds of armed conflict over the keeping and bearing of arms by private individuals.

Still, the anti-gun people keep whining about guns. At this point the debate is mostly over. There will be edge cases to consider for years. Machine guns? Semi-auto artillery with HE rounds?

While I think the above response is more than acceptable, I think my response to these losers will be more along the lines of, “Stop whining. You lost this debate in SCOTUS in June 2022. The game is over.”

Clearwater county growth rate

This is from the most recent annual report of the electrical utility cooperative in north central Idaho:

image

Boomershoot is located in Clearwater county. There was nearly a 30% increase in cooperative members in just one year. People are leaving the blue states and moving to Idaho. I have posted about this before. But I did not know any county by county numbers.

Another indicator is that recently I was talking to a guy that works for a construction company out of Orofino (Clearwater County). They mostly do  earth moving and concrete stuff. He said they have a three year backlog.

We live in interesting times. Prepare appropriately—If it is not too late.

Quote of the day—Damon Root

The alliance seems less “unlikely” when you remember that the American civil rights movement has long had a gun rights component. This dates back as far as the abolitionists, such as Frederick Douglass, who declared in 1854 that “the True Remedy for the Fugitive Slave Bill is a good revolver, a steady hand, and a determination to shoot down any man attempting to kidnap.”

Douglass continued to preach the virtues of armed self-defense throughout the rest of his life. In 1893, as the noble aims of Reconstruction were giving way to the horrors of the rising Jim Crow regime, Douglass argued that “the liberties of the American people were dependent upon the ballot-box, the jury-box, and the cartridge box.” Without all three securely in place, he maintained, “no class of people could live and flourish in this country.”

Damon Root
August 1, 2022
The New York Times Is Surprised To Find Public Defenders Championing the Second Amendment–Yet the civil rights movement has long had a gun rights component.
[I have nothing to add.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Kenneth R. Timmerman

Time’s editors showed in July 1994 that they believed their job was not to uncover the truth but to provide political cover to Democrats in Washington. It’s only gotten worse since then, but I believe this incident formally marks the end of the “mainstream media” as we once knew it. Like many other countries in Europe and elsewhere, we now have a politicized media in the United States. But unlike other countries, in all but a few cases our media refuses to acknowledge its ideological affiliation. So added to bias, you have hypocrisy.

Kenneth R. Timmerman
August 6, 2022
Ex-Time reporter: The day I knew journalism had died in America
[It may have been the day Timmerman recognized journalism was a propaganda arm of the Democrats but that kind of crap was happening long before that. I have heard first hand stories from the late 1970s. It probably wasn’t new then. I suspect journalism has always been biased and hypocritical.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Ddraig RSP @Draigg

A man who’s twig & berries are so small you couldn’t find them with an electron microscope, compensating with a bunch of deadly phalli/phalluses. And because of that his wife invited the mailman “in for tea” about six years ago.

Ddraig RSP @Draigg
Tweeted on May 3, 2022
[It’s not only another Markley’s Law Monday, it is another science denier!

Insults. They lack the philosophical, moral, and legal high ground so they go with the best of what they have left.—Joe]

Quote of the day—Egon von Greyerz

In 1971, when Nixon closed the gold window, global debt was $1.5T.

After 50 years of irresponsible monetary policies debt has grown 200X. When we reach a total debt of $3 quadrillion in the next 5 to 10 years, with the assistance of the derivative collapse, the increase will be 2,000X since 1971.

Egon von Greyerz
July 13, 2022
BEWARE OF MARKETS FULL OF FOOL’S GOLD
[We live in interesting times.

Prepare appropriately.—Joe]

The physics of heat transfer

When I was going to college thermodynamics was dreaded by many engineering students. Apparently, it involved concepts difficult for many to grasp. For some reason it made perfect sense to me. Compared to most of my other engineering classes it was easy. I got a very high A in the class. That was decades ago, and I have forgotten a lot of it but I do have a good recollection of heat transfer.

That bright engineering students find it challenging means it should come as no surprise that people with little or no training in the subject would have misconception about how certain thermodynamic related physical phenomena occur. There have been many times on this blog I have made statements, or linked to articles, which described perfectly obvious observations. Some commenters declared them obliviously false. I didn’t want to take the time to explain why they were in error. It was just too much work for that particular situation.

It is now time to attempt explain certain things to people in terms and examples that will help them understand the physics of heat transfer. There are other sources on the web as well. But I will include example directly applicable to material on this blog.

The three* classic methods of heat transfer are:

  1. Thermal conduction (also called diffusion).
  2. Thermal convection.
  3. Thermal radiation.

The first two are relatively well understood at an intuitive level by nearly all functional people. It is the thermal radiation that I most want to address because of the clear lack of understanding I see in the comments here. I will explain the items 1 and 2 first to make the distinction from thermal radiation clearer. Please either stick with me or skip ahead if excessive boredom occurs.

Thermal conduction occurs when two objects of different temperature touch. Your finger touching an ice cube initiates the transfer of heat from your finger to the ice. The ice warms and when it reaches the melting point it changes phase from solid to liquid water.

If your finger is in a glass of liquid water and an ice cube thermal convection occurs**. Via conduction your finger warms the water touching your finger and because the warm water is slightly less dense than cold water*** the warm water rises. If the warm water is rising, then the cold water must be sinking. This creates a loop of water flow in the glass. It is slow enough that you cannot easily see it or feel it. If you were to put a drop of food coloring in the water, you probably could. The coldest water is next to the ice cube and the warmest is next to your finger. The water leaving the ice cube is replaced by water that recently left your warm finger. The warm water touching the ice cube conducts heat to the ice cube. This warms and melts the ice and cools the water causing it to sink. Heat is thus transferred from your finger to the ice.

Thermal convection occurs in gases as well as liquids. If you open a hot oven door with your face over the opening, you will feel an almost blast of hot air. No similar blast occurs at the crack at the bottom of the oven because cool air is rushing in. The hot air rises near a wood stove and cool air near the floor replaces it and forms a slow-moving loop of air. Soaring birds “ride the thermals” when different portions of the earth absorb more energy from the sun that others (for example dirt versus plants). This creates an updraft of air over the hotter earth which allows the birds to stay aloft with greatly reduced effort.

Thermal radiation occurs at all temperatures above absolute zero (-273.15 C or –459.67 F). But in our normal earthly circumstances most people are unaware of it because conduction and convection tend to dominate everyday life thermal transfers. Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of particles in matter.

  • Thermal radiation occurs across empty space as in from the sun to the earth.
  • Thermal radiation occurs through gases as in from the sun to the surface of the earth.
  • Thermal radiation occurs though solids as in the sun through glass.

The sun is not some magical generator. Microwave ovens emit a very specific frequency of identical electromagnetic waves which also transfer heat. The difference is only in the means by which the EM waves are creates, not in the nature of the waves.

The leaves of plants will sometimes get colder than the nearby air because they radiate their heat into outer space on a cold clear night when the air is still. Hence the air may be 35 F but the plant leaf can lose heat and drop to below 32F and get frost damage.

Orchard owner sometimes protect their crops by “heaters” which produce smoke to block the thermal radiation. The heaters do not produce enough heat to significantly heat the air. Owners also sometimes use large fans which move warmer air over the leaves. Via conduction the warmer air restores the heat lost by radiation.

The temperature of the sun is extremely high, and the thermal radiation occurs at high levels across a broad spectrum which includes the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum is what we call light. At the low frequency end of light, we call this thermal radiation red and even lower infrared. At the high frequency of light, we call this thermal radiation blue and even higher is ultraviolet.

Glass is not a magical solid conductor of thermal radiation. When exposed to thermal radiation all substances will do the following three things in various degrees with the incoming thermal radiation

  1. Transmit it through to the other side.
  2. Absorb it.
  3. Reflect it.

The amount of transmission, absorption, and reflection depend on the substance and frequency of the thermal radiation. These differing amounts are each described by a number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusively. These numbers are called coefficients. The sum of all these numbers will always be equal to 1.0 (conservation of energy). Hence clear glass, for visible light, may have a transmission coefficient of 0.90. That is, 90% of the thermal radiation in the visible spectrum passes through the glass. The reflection coefficient may be 0.08 and the absorption coefficient 0.02 for a total of 1.0. Colored glass absorbs and/or reflects some energy at certain frequencies and transmits most of the energy at other frequencies.

Clean water has a high transmission coefficient for visible light but is highly absorbing of a certain frequency in the microwave region of the spectrum. This is why microwave ovens can heat a cup of water. The water absorbs nearly all the microwave frequency thermal radiation which the water intercepts.

Brick, wood, and other common house construction materials transmit thermal radiation at frequencies we know as radio waves. You can easily listen to your radio and make cell phone calls inside your brick building. At visible light frequencies and normal wall thickness there is no human perceptible transmission.

Thermal radiation is also why a vacuum is not a perfect insulator. Even in the hard vacuum of deep space, far from stars or any other object a warm object will radiate its heat into the surrounding empty space as lower and lower frequencies of electromagnetic radiation until it approaches a temperature of absolute zero.

This is also why the earth cools at night. It radiates heat into outer space. If it didn’t get rid of heat at the same average rate at it absorbed, it from the sun it would either get warmer or colder until the thermal radiation at night increased or decreased to match the visible light (as well as thermal) radiation absorbed from the sun.

Absorption and retransmission is where things get most obscure in our ordinary life and is where the commenters have been going astray.

Taking the example of an ordinary brick in the sunlight. It transmits none of the light, reflects some of the light in the red region of the spectrum and absorbs the rest. The absorbed the light causes the brick to warm. Some of that thermal energy is transferred to it’s surroundings via conduction and convection. But some of it is emitted as thermal radiation. This thermal radiation will be at various frequencies depending upon the exact chemical composition of the brick, but most will be in the infrared region of the spectrum.

This change of frequency is how certain gases get classified as “greenhouse gases”. This is how paint can actually cool the substance it is painted on below the ambient air temperature.

I’ll explain the paint first since it is simpler and has less emotional content.

The back side of the paint receives thermal energy via conduction. Suppose this paint is on a building at 75 F. It emits thermal radiation out into its exterior environment with the clear empty (sun and moon transmit their own thermal radiation) sky being a very cold (many degrees below zero) heat sink. Normal paints absorb significant light energy as well as conduction gains from the air. But what if the paint had very low conduction ability on the outside but high conduction ability on the inside, and the paint also reflecting almost all light? The outgoing thermal radiation would dominate the incoming heat transfer from the air and sunlight. Hence, the paint would literally cool the building it was painted on without the use of any external power source.

Now let’s consider the case of water vapor in the atmosphere. This is transparent to visible light. Clouds are condensation and/or ice. This water vapor transmits visible light to the earth which absorbs it and retransmits infrared thermal radiation just like our brick. The water vapor in the atmosphere, just like our colored glass, blocks the thermal radiation via reflection and absorption. If the incoming high frequency energy zips through the water vapor in the atmosphere and the retransmitted low frequency outgoing energy is reflected back to earth and/or absorbed, then the earth will get warmer.

That is the extremely simple version of greenhouse gases. Things get really complicated when you throw in things like clouds which reflect significant portions of visible light as well as whether they are clouds of ice crystals or water droplets and their presence during the day versus night, the latitude, the type of surface (earth, water, forest, ice, etc.) they are shading, and probably many other things. Does water vapor and/or CO2 really cause “global warming”? I don’t know. I am skeptical of manmade changes of CO2 in earth’s atmosphere causing heating and I think water vapor is complex enough that modeling it accurately is probably currently impossible.

Venus, almost for certain, is far hotter because of its mix of atmospheric gases than it would be if the composition were something like 80% nitrogen (earth) instead of about 3.5% nitrogen.and 96.5% CO2. So, I believe greenhouse gases can be a real thing.

Summary: Thermal radiation is not as well known by the general public as thermal conduction and convection. But it is real and easily observed if it is pointed out to you. Thermal radiation becomes the dominate heat transfer mechanism when long distances are involved. Thermal radiation exists at different frequencies. Substances have different absorption, reflective, and transmission characteristics at the different frequencies. Because of these different characteristics at different frequencies, it is possible to create one-way “heat valves”. Cooling paint and “greenhouse gases” are possible and exist because of these thermal dynamic “valves” utilizing thermal radiation.


* I won’t directly cover transfer of energy by phase changes or transfer of mass of differing chemical species.

** I’m not going to address the case of a zero-gravity environment.

*** Yes, I know, at temperatures between 0 and 4 C this is not true. Let’s not complicate things. But it is interesting to note this anomaly is why ice generally forms on the top of a body of water rather than on the bottom then floating to the surface.

Mother Nature deserves the credit

This is interesting:

On January 15th, 2022, Tonga’s Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano erupted, spewing tons of gas and ash into the atmosphere. According to a Wednesday report by National Public Radio, the blast contained enough water vapor – notorious for its heat-trapping abilities – to temporarily raise Earth’s temperature.

“The massive amount of water vapor is roughly 10% of the normal amount of vapor found in the stratosphere, equaling more than 58,000 Olympic-size swimming pools,” NPR wrote.

The chemicals “came from a volcano that’s more than 12 miles wide, with a caldera sitting roughly 500 feet below sea level. One day earlier, Tongan officials reported the volcano was in a continuous eruption, sending a 3-mile-wide plume of steam and ash into the sky. Then the big blast came, sending ash, gases and vapor as high as 35 miles — a record in the satellite era — into the atmosphere,” per NPR.

In a July paper published in Geophysical Research Letters, scientists discovered that Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai “may be the first volcanic eruption observed to impact climate not through surface cooling caused by volcanic sulfate aerosols, but rather through surface warming.”

Water vapor lingers in the air, which contributes to its ability to retain heat.

“It normally takes around 2-3 years for sulfate aerosols from volcanoes to fall out of the stratosphere. But the water from the Jan. 15 eruption could take 5-10 years to fully dissipate,” NPR explained.

I initially wondered if the extra water could be responsible for the extraordinary wet spring we had this year. But I read elsewhere that the volcano put the water in the stratosphere and it will take a couple years for the water to move down into the troposphere and become rain.

Its sounds as if, for the next few years, we can expect warmer than normal weather. Don’t let the climate alarmist blame it on fossil fuels. Insist Mother Nature gets the appropriate credit.